Volume 4, Issue 2 e202300082
Research Article

Non-invasive and Sensitive Fluorescence Detection of Phenylpyruvic Acid via a Guanidinomethyl-modified Calixarene

Huan-Yu Wang

Huan-Yu Wang

College of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Elemento-Organic Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials (Ministry of Education), Frontiers Science Center for New Organic Matter, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071 China

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Zong-Ying Hu

Zong-Ying Hu

College of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Elemento-Organic Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials (Ministry of Education), Frontiers Science Center for New Organic Matter, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071 China

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Han-Wen Tian

Han-Wen Tian

College of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Elemento-Organic Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials (Ministry of Education), Frontiers Science Center for New Organic Matter, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071 China

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Dr. Xin-Yue Hu

Dr. Xin-Yue Hu

College of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Elemento-Organic Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials (Ministry of Education), Frontiers Science Center for New Organic Matter, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071 China

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Dr. Yu-Chen Pan

Corresponding Author

Dr. Yu-Chen Pan

College of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Elemento-Organic Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials (Ministry of Education), Frontiers Science Center for New Organic Matter, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071 China

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Dr. Dong-Sheng Guo

Corresponding Author

Dr. Dong-Sheng Guo

College of Chemistry, State Key Laboratory of Elemento-Organic Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials (Ministry of Education), Frontiers Science Center for New Organic Matter, Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin), Nankai University, Tianjin, 300071 China

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First published: 15 December 2023

Graphical Abstract

The simple, rapid, and sensitive sensing of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) is important for the home-based diagnosis of phenylketonuria. In this work we designed and synthesized a novel macrocyclic receptor, guanidinomethyl-modified calix[5]arene, which bind tightly with PPA. Through the indicator displacement assay, the quantitative detection of PPA in artificial urine has been achieved.

Abstract

Detection of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA) is important for the diagnosis of phenylketonuria (PKU). In this study, we designed a guanidinomethyl-modified calix[5]arene that can strongly and selectively bind with PPA. Via indicator displacement assay, we set up a calibration line for accurately determining PPA concentration down to the μM range in artificial urine based on the linear relationship between the fluorescence intensity and PPA concentration. This work provides a low-cost, easy-to-operate, rapid, and sensitive method for PPA detection, and may offer an alternative for PKU diagnosis in clinical study.

Conflict of interests

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Data Availability Statement

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.