Volume 25, Issue 24 p. 6233-6245
Full Paper

Sonochemical Formation of Copper/Iron-Modified Graphene Oxide Nanocomposites for Ketorolac Delivery

Dr. Darya Radziuk

Corresponding Author

Dr. Darya Radziuk

Laboratory of Integrated Micro- and Nanosystems, Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, P. Brovki Str. 6, 220013 Minsk, Republic of Belarus

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Lubov Mikhnavets

Lubov Mikhnavets

Laboratory of Integrated Micro- and Nanosystems, Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, P. Brovki Str. 6, 220013 Minsk, Republic of Belarus

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Dr. Mykhailo Vorokhta

Dr. Mykhailo Vorokhta

Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Charles University of Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 18000 Prague 8, Czech Republic

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Prof. Vladimír Matolín

Prof. Vladimír Matolín

Department of Surface and Plasma Science, Charles University of Prague, V Holešovičkách 2, 18000 Prague 8, Czech Republic

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Dr. Ludmila Tabulina

Dr. Ludmila Tabulina

Laboratory of Integrated Micro- and Nanosystems, Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, P. Brovki Str. 6, 220013 Minsk, Republic of Belarus

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Prof. Vladimir Labunov

Prof. Vladimir Labunov

Laboratory of Integrated Micro- and Nanosystems, Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics, P. Brovki Str. 6, 220013 Minsk, Republic of Belarus

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First published: 06 March 2019
Citations: 11

Graphical Abstract

Ultrasound-induced intercalation: A new feasible sonochemical method has been developed for the formation of copper/iron-modified graphene oxide nanocomposites as drug carriers (see figure). Intercalated ketorolac disintegrates from these nanocomposites at a slower rate at increased pH (1–8) due to the higher surface area enriched with Cu2O, CuO, Fe2O3, FeO(OH), and sulfur- or carbon-containing compounds.

Abstract

A feasible sonochemical approach is described for the preparation of copper/iron-modified graphene oxide nanocomposites through ultrasonication (20 kHz, 18 W cm−2) of an aqueous solution containing copper and iron ion precursors. Unique copper-, copper/iron- and iron-modified graphene oxide nanocomposites have a submicron size that is smaller than that of pristine GO and a higher surface area enriched with Cu2O, CuO, and Fe2O3 of multiform phases (α-, β-, ϵ-, or γ), FeO(OH), and sulfur- or carbon-containing compounds. These nanocomposites are sonochemically intercalated with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug ketorolac, which results in the formation of nanoscale carriers. Ketorolac monotonically disintegrates from these nanoscale carriers in aqueous solution upon adjustment of the pH from 1 to 8. The disintegration of ketorolac proceeds at a slower rate from the copper/iron-modified graphene oxide at increased pH, but at a faster rate from the iron-modified graphene oxide under acidic conditions.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.