Volume 12, Issue 11 p. 2366-2372
Full Paper

Appraisement of Crystal Expansion in CH3NH3PbI3 on Doping: Improved Photovoltaic Properties

Dr. Manuel Salado

Corresponding Author

Dr. Manuel Salado

Basque Center for Materials, Applications and Nanostructures, Bld. Martina Casiano, UPV/EHU Science Park, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Spain

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Dr. Samrana Kazim

Corresponding Author

Dr. Samrana Kazim

Basque Center for Materials, Applications and Nanostructures, Bld. Martina Casiano, UPV/EHU Science Park, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Spain

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Prof. Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin

Prof. Mohammad Khaja Nazeeruddin

Group for Molecular Engineering of Functional Materials, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL), EPFL Valais Wallis, 1951 Sion, Switzerland

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Prof. Shahzada Ahmad

Corresponding Author

Prof. Shahzada Ahmad

Basque Center for Materials, Applications and Nanostructures, Bld. Martina Casiano, UPV/EHU Science Park, Barrio Sarriena s/n, 48940 Leioa, Spain

IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao, 48013 Spain

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First published: 18 February 2019
Citations: 6

Graphical Abstract

Bigger and better: Imidazolium iodide (ImI) has been used as additive organic cation inside the CH3NH3PbI3 matrix. ImI primarily acts as a reservoir to control the spontaneous loss of iodide, thereby improving the stability of perovskite solar cells. Furthermore, optimized incorporation of ImI positively impacts crystallization of perovskite, passivates the surface, and minimize recombination losses.

Abstract

Three-dimensional hybrid perovskite materials (CH3NH3PbI3) suffer from intrinsic instability owing to organic cation evaporation and ion migration. The inclusion of a large organic cation such as guanidinium has been probed to stabilize the structure. This work proposes the inclusion of imidazolium iodide (C3N2H5I) as an organic cation inside the CH3NH3PbI3 matrix, as a reservoir to control the spontaneous loss of iodide. The introduction of imidazolium iodide in amounts below 20 % has an impact on the crystallization process but not on the optical properties. It also positively controls non-radiative recombination and improves the open-circuit voltage of the solar cells. The present study paves way for a deeper insight into the limit of multi-dimensional perovskite to further push the performance.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.